March 30, 1998

Mr. Richard Lewis
2222 Dorothy Avenue
Louisville, Kentucky 40205-1926

Dear Mr. Lewis:

As you requested, enclosed is a copy of 2 USC Sec. 431. If I can be of additional service, please let me know.


Sherri Craig
District Director (for Congresswoman Anne M. Northup)




2 USC Sec. 431






Sec. 431. Definitions 


When used in this Act: 

(1) The term "election" means -

(A) a general, special, primary, or runoff election;

(B) a convention or caucus of a politcal party which has

authority to nominate a candidate;

(C) a primary election held for the selection of delegates to a

national nominating convention of a political party; and

(D) a primary election held for the expression of a preference

for the nomination of individuals for election to the office of


(2) The term "candidate" means an individual who seeks

nomination for election, or election, to Federal office, and for

purposes of this paragraph, an individual shall be deemed to seek

nomination for election, or election -

(A) if such individual has received contributions aggregating

in excess of $5,000 or has made expenditures aggregating in

excess of $5,000; or

(B) if such individual has given his or her consent to another

person to receive contributions or make expenditures on behalf of

such individual and if such person has received such

general public communication or political advertising;

(2) such payments are made from contributions subject to the

limitations and prohibitions of this Act; and

(3) such payments are not made from contributions designated

to be spent on behalf of a particular candidate or candidates;

(xiii) payments made by a candidate or the authorized committee

of a candidate as a condition of ballot access and payments

received by any political party committee as a condition of

ballot access; and

(xiv) any honorarium (within the meaning of section 441i of

this title).

(9) (A) The term "expenditure" includes -

(i) any purchase, payment, distribution, loan, advance,

deposit, or gift of money or anything of value, made by any

person for the purpose of influencing any election for Federal

office; and

(ii) a written contract, promise, or agreement to make an


(B) The term "expenditure" does not include -

(i) any news story, commentary, or editorial distributed

through the facilities of any broadcasting station, newspaper,

magazine, or other periodical publication, unless such facilities

are owned or controlled by any political party, political

committee, or candidate;

(ii) nonpartisan activity designed to encourage individuals to

vote or to register to vote;

(iii) any communication by any membership organization or

corporation to its members, stockholders, or executive or

administrative personnel, if such membership organization or

corporation is not organized primarily for the purpose of

influencing the nomination for election, or election, of any